During the Kot Diji phase (2800–2500 BC), the Harappans used standardized sun-baked adobe bricks to build city walls and domestic architecture. The settlement was laid out along gridded streets tracing the cardinal directions and wheeled carts pulled by bulls for transporting heavy commodities into Harappa.
in the Indus Valley were laying the bricks for India’s first cities. They built strong levees, or earthen walls, to keep water out of their cities. When these were not enough, they constructed human-made islands to raise the cities above possi- ble floodwaters.
“By 2600 BC, Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley (present-day Pakistan) was built with blocks divided by a grid of straight streets, laid out in perfect right angles, running north-south and east-west. Each block was subdivided by small lanes.
Each city was laid out in a grid-like pattern oriented on a north-south axis. One portion of each city consisted of a citadel mound complex (an area with public buildings raised about 12 meters, or 40 feet, above the floodplain), and a lower town that appears to have been mostly residential.
Surkotada, Lothal, and Dholavira are the important port towns in the Indus valley. Harappa, Mohanjodaro, Banawali and Dholavira are considered as the four main Harappan Sites. Till 1999, over 1,056 urban areas and settlements had been found.
The land in Indus Valley Civilization was the primary physical resource, which was intentionally laid out into well-organized cities so that people can live together and interact with each other as well as with natural resources like river, forests, stones and man-made resources like houses, streets, wells and
Some historians believed the Indus civilisation was destroyed in a large war. Hindu poems called the Rig Veda (from around 1500 BC) describe northern invaders conquering the Indus Valley cities.
Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE. It was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture.
The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920. His work and contemporaneous excavations at Mohenjo-daro first brought to the world’s attention the existence of the forgotten Indus Valley civilization as the earliest urban culture in the Indian subcontinent.
Two conclusions that have been drawn about Harappan civilizations are many discoveries were made near the city of Harappa and they were farming along the river about 3200 B. C.
Discovery and excavation In 1912, Harappan seals with then unknown symbols were discovered by J. Fleet, which triggered an excavation campaign under Sir John Marshall in 1921/22, resulting in the discovery of a hitherto unknown civilization by Dayaram Sahni.
As this was the first city to be discovered, all other sites from where similar buildings (and other things) were found were described as Harappan. These cities developed about 4700 years ago. Very often, old buildings are pulled down to make way for new construction.
Bigger than Mohenjo-daro, claims expert. The discovery of two more mounds in January at the Harappan site of Rakhigarhi in Hisar district, Haryana, has led to archaeologists establishing it as the biggest Harappan civilisation site.
Allahdino is a small village belonging to the Harappan period, located 40 km east of Karachi. It is an unfortified settlement of 1.4 hectare, established in a coastal area of Pakistan.
Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]; Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north.