What is the significance of Harappan civilization?
Discovery and excavation In 1912, Harappan seals with then unknown symbols were discovered by J. Fleet, which triggered an excavation campaign under Sir John Marshall in 1921/22, resulting in the discovery of a hitherto unknown civilization by Dayaram Sahni.
Harappans are believed to have used Indus Script, a language consisting of symbols. A collection of written texts on clay and stone tablets unearthed at Harappa, which have been carbon dated 3300-3200 BCE, contain trident-shaped, plant-like markings.
The Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus river system in whose alluvial plains the early sites of the civilisation were identified and excavated.
Sir John Hubert Marshall CIE FBA (19 March 1876, Chester, England – 17 August 1958, Guildford, England) was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India from 1902 to 1928. He oversaw the excavations of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, two of the main cities that comprise the Indus Valley Civilization.
The Harappa site was first briefly excavated by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1872-73, two decades after brick robbers carried off the visible remains of the city. He found an Indus seal of unknown origin. The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920.
Answer: Harappans created sculptures, seals, pottery, and jewelry from materials, such as terracotta, metal, and stone. Harappan people were literate and used the Dravidian language. The most remarkable feature of the Harappan civilization was its urbanization and its excellent town planning.
Harappan civilization developed the first accurate system of standardized weights and measures. Harappans created sculptures, seals, pottery, and jewelry from materials, such as terracotta, metal, and stone. Harappan people were literate and used the Dravidian language.
2. The significant features of Indus Valley civilization are personal cleanliness, town planning, construction of burnt-brick houses, ceramics, casting, forging of metals, manufacturing of cotton and woolen textiles. 3. Mohenjo-Daro people had finest bath facilities, drainage system, and knowledge of personal hygiene.
The Harappan civilization was located in the Indus River valley. Its two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, were located in present-day Pakistan’s Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively. Its extent reached as far south as the Gulf of Khambhat and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River.
Some historians believed the Indus civilisation was destroyed in a large war. Hindu poems called the Rig Veda (from around 1500 BC) describe northern invaders conquering the Indus Valley cities. It’s more likely that the cities collapsed after natural disasters. Enemies might have moved in afterwards.
The Indus Valley Civilization contained more than 1,000 cities and settlements. These cities contained well-organized wastewater drainage systems, trash collection systems, and possibly even public granaries and baths. Although there were large walls and citadels, there is no evidence of monuments, palaces, or temples.
The urban or the mature Harappan Phase includes a wide range of urban and non-urban rural sites that are varied in size and function but are inherently known for several features like the town planning with defensive walls with impressive gates around the site, two or more divisions of the settlement at the site,
In 1924, John Marshall, Director-General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilisation in the Indus valley to the world.
noun. a village in Pakistan: site of successive cities of the Indus valley civilization. a Bronze Age culture that flourished in the Indus valley.