Hernán Cortés, a Spanish conqueror who lived sometime between 1485 and 1547, is probably most remembered for defeating the Aztecs and establishing Spanish control over Mexico.In 1511, Don Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, participated as a soldier in an expedition to Cuba headed by Diego Velázquez.Cortés’ full name is Don Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca.
In 1519, Spanish explorers arrived in what is now known as the Aztec Empire. By 1521, the final Aztec fortresses had been taken over by the Spanish. Even before it began, the expedition that eventually led to the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs was plagued by a number of difficulties and setbacks.
The Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés conducted an expedition (entrada) to Mexico in 1519, which followed a previous voyage to Yucatán that had been commanded by Juan de Grijalva in 1518. In 1519, after a delay of two years, Cortés and his retinue finally sailed ship for Mexico.
At the Battle of Otumba, which took place on July 14, 1520, the Aztecs made a last-ditch effort to wipe out the Spanish for good.The Spanish infantry was able to withstand the onslaught of an enormous number of enemy warriors despite the intense pressure they were under.Meanwhile, the Spanish cavalry, led by Cortés and repeatedly charging through the opposing ranks, was able to get the upper hand.
The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish had precedents in well-established traditions at the time. The collapse of the Aztec Empire was a pivotal step in the expansion of the Spanish colonial empire overseas, beginning with the establishment of New Spain (later renamed Mexico).