The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore–Multan Railway.
About a hundred and fifty years ago, the majority of the bricks were taken away by engineers.
Building Materials Easy availability of wood for burning meant baked bricks were used in abundance in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
Fire-baked bricks—which were uniform in size and moisture-resistant—were important in building baths and sewage structures and are evidence that Harappans were among the first to develop a system of standardized weights and measures.
The Harappans generally used clay or mud mortar to build their fired brick and also their mud brick buildings. They did not use lime mortar. Many brick buildings in northern and western India and Pakistan are still made in the same manner.
One group of archaeologists suggest that the Harappan society had no rulers and so everybody enjoyed equal status. The other group of archaeologists are of the opinion that there was no single ruler but several ones.
Brick is referred to as one of the world’s oldest professions; brick making is estimated to date back to early Indus Valley Civilization, possibly as far as 10,000 years ago. Clay from deposits around the Indus River was mixed with straw, shaped into brick units and sun dried.
Bricks date back to 7000 BC, which makes them one of the oldest known building materials. They were discovered in southern Turkey at the site of an ancient settlement around the city of Jericho.
The ancient Egyptians and the Indus Valley Civilization also used mudbrick extensively, as can be seen in the ruins of Buhen, Mohenjo-daro, and Harappa, for example. In the Indus Valley Civilization, all bricks corresponded to sizes in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1, and made use of the decimal system.
The Indus Valley Civilization prospered around 4700 years ago. The cities of that period flourished mainly in the valley of the river Indus. Harappa was the first site of this civilization to be discovered. Hence, this is also called the Harappan Civilization.
Flemish bond This is formed by laying headers and stretchers alternately in each course. The headers of each course are centred on the stretchers of the course below. This bond is strong and often used for walls which are two-bricks thick.
1826 Charles Masson, aka James Lewis, hiding out from British army came across a large city of bricks in the Punjab – wrote ab.
The Harappa site was first briefly excavated by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1872-73, two decades after brick robbers carried off the visible remains of the city. He found an Indus seal of unknown origin. The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920.
Discovery and Major Excavations Mohenjo-daro was discovered in 1922 by R. D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India, two years after major excavations had begun at Harappa, some 590 km to the north. Large-scale excavations were carried out at the site under the direction of John Marshall, K. N.