For almost 30 centuries—from its unification around 3100 B.C. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.—ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean world.
What year did ancient Egypt start and end?
The historical records of ancient Egypt begin with Egypt as a unified state, which occurred sometime around 3150 BC. According to Egyptian tradition, Menes, thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt, was the first king.
Overview. Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile River in large part because the river’s annual flooding ensured reliable, rich soil for growing crops. Ancient Egyptians developed wide-reaching trade networks along the Nile, in the Red Sea, and in the Near East.
The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three main periods: the Old Kingdom ( about 2,700-2,200 B.C.E. ), the Middle Kingdom (2,050-1,800 B.C.E.), and the New Kingdom (about 1,550-1,100 B.C.E.).
Did Egypt’s Old Kingdom Die—or Simply Fade Away? Conventional wisdom holds that Egypt’s Old Kingdom collapsed around 2150 B.C., soon after the death of pharaoh Pepi II, whose pyramid is now a pile of rubble.
Most Egyptians were probably descended from settlers who moved to the Nile valley in prehistoric times, with population increase coming through natural fertility. In various periods there were immigrants from Nubia, Libya, and especially the Middle East.
The name ‘Mizraim’ is the original name given for Egypt in the Hebrew Old Testament. Many Bibles will have a footnote next to the name ‘Mizraim’ explaining that it means ‘Egypt.
To many, ancient Egypt is synonymous with the pharaohs and pyramids of the Dynastic period starting about 3,100BC. Yet long before that, about 9,300-4,000BC, enigmatic Neolithic peoples flourished.
The Ancient Egyptian Civilization Ancient Egypt is one of the oldest and culturally rich civilizations on this list. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh.
It was the Egyptians who built the pyramids. The Great Pyramid is dated with all the evidence, I’m telling you now to 4,600 years, the reign of Khufu. The Great Pyramid of Khufu is one of 104 pyramids in Egypt with superstructure. And there are 54 pyramids with substructure.
In the early period of Egypt, during the Old Kingdom, Egypt was referred to as Kemet (Kermit), or simply Kmt, which means the Black land. They called themselves “remetch en Kermet”, which means the “People of the Black Land”. The term refers to the rich soil found in the Nile Valley and Delta.
Time Periods for Ancient Egypt
Two thousand years ago, around the time that Jesus of Nazareth was born, the second Holy Temple was still standing in Jerusalem. The Great Pyramid at Giza was already 2,500 years old, but the Library of Alexandria was still around.
Afrocentric: the ancient Egyptians were black Africans, displaced by later movements of peoples, for example the Macedonian, Roman and Arab conquests. Eurocentric: the ancient Egyptians are ancestral to modern Europe.
However, history shows that even the mightiest empires can fall and after 1,100 BC, Egypt went into decline. There were several reasons for this including a loss of military power, lack of natural resources, and political conflicts. At the end of Egypt’s empire the climate became erratic and unstable.
After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander (336–323 BC). Her native language was Koine Greek, and she was the only Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language.